We offer various techniques for exosome characterization. Characterization of exosomes from body fluids provides highly valuable information for, the identification of diagnostic markers, disease monitoring and the development of effective treatments against diabetes, cancer, various degenerative diseases and autoimmune diseases etc. The important techniques we use are:
- Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA): It follows single particle movement into a solution and calculates their hydrodynamic diameter based on Brownian motion equations. It provides size, zeta potential and exosome distribution per volume of sample.
- Electronic microscopy (EM): Cryo-transmission EM is the gold standard to determine extracellular vesicle size. It directly visualizes exosomes and provides information on morphology and true particle diameter of any size.
- Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), Western blotting, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): These methods identify exosomal surface markers and protein and provide critical information associated with the physiological states of their parental cell. We get to know the different physical and chemical characteristics of exosomes in suspension. Western blotting specifically identifies the presence and expression level of a specific single protein on the surface of exosomes while ELISA uses a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect the presence of a specific single protein on the surface of exosomes using a single or a pair of antibodies.