Exosome In Vitro Functional Assays
Before initiating clinical trials, exosomes-inherent features should be tested in well-standardized quantitative in vitro assays. Such assays would predict if a particular exosome has the potential to achieve its intended therapeutic effects. We offer a wide spectrum of in vitro assays to interrogate the therapeutic functions of exosomes. Commonly performed bioassays to determine the efficacy after uptake of exosomes by desired recipient cells
- Cell proliferation assay: MTT assay, Ki67 and CK-8, these are fast, highly sensitive, non-radioactive method based on WST-8 for cell proliferation and cytotoxicity detection.
- Cell apoptosis by flow cytometry: Cell apoptosis is a programmed cell death that is distinct from necrosis or accidental cell death. Flow cytometry is one of the most popular and widely used methods to study apoptosis.
- Measurement of Cell cycle by flow cytometry: Here we analyze the cell cycle using a DNA-specific stain and report the percentage of the population in G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases.
- Transwell assay for cell migration: All the living cells migrate for their normal development and exhibit immune response to various disease processes such as cancer metastasis and inflammation. We determine the effect of exosomes on the migration and invasion of cancer cells using Transwell 24-well plates.
- Cell invasion assay: The transwell cell migration assay measures the chemotactic capability of cells toward a chemo-attractant. The transwell cell invasion assay, however, measures both cell chemotaxis and the invasion of cells through the extracellular matrix, a process that is commonly found in cancer metastasis or embryonic development.
- Cellular uptake studies: Confocal based imaging.
- Angiogenesis assays: cell migration, Tube formation and CAM assays
- Immunomodulatory assays: Analysis of effect of exosomes on the expression/release of cytokines, growth factors involve in pro and anti-inflammatory activities, from immune cells such as macrophages, NK cells, T cells etc.
- Stem cell-based assays: to prove the Osteo, chondro, odonto and adipogenic differentiation capabilities of exosomes
- Transcriptomics: To determine the therapeutic RNAs which involve in tissue regeneration.
- Proteomics: To determine the therapeutic proteins and signaling molecule which regulate the target pathways involve in tissue regeneration.